Syntastic


Ⅰ. 插件描述

Syntax checking hacks for vim

Ⅱ. 基本信息

创建日期:  2009-07-11
更新日期:  2年以前
使用用户:  22358
Github星:  10290
插件作者:  Marty Grenfell

Ⅲ. 安装方法

使用Vundle管理器安装

在你的.vimrc下添加:
Plugin 'scrooloose/syntastic'
… 然后在Vim中运行以下命令:
:source %
:PluginInstall

对于Vundle版本 < 0.10.2,请用上面的Bundle替换Plugin。

使用NeoBundle管理器安装

在你的.vimrc下添加:
NeoBundle 'scrooloose/syntastic'
… 然后在Vim中运行以下命令:
:source %
:NeoBundleInstall

使用VimPlug管理器安装

在你的.vimrc下添加:
Plug 'scrooloose/syntastic'
… 然后在Vim中运行以下命令:
:source %
:PlugInstall

使用Pathogen管理器安装

在终端中运行以下命令:
cd ~/.vim/bundle
git clone https://github.com/scrooloose/syntastic

Ⅳ. 文档说明

,

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           ,{{| /}}}}/_.'            _____________________________________________
          }}}}` '{{'  '.            /                                             \
        {{{{{    _   ;, \          /            Ladies and Gentlemen,              \
     ,}}}}}}    /o`\  ` ;)        |                                                |
    {{{{{{   /           (        |                 this is ...                    |
    }}}}}}   |            \       |                                                |
   {{{{{{{{   \            \      |                                                |
   }}}}}}}}}   '.__      _  |     |    _____             __             __  _      |
   {{{{{{{{       /`._  (_\ /     |   / ___/__  ______  / /_____ ______/ /_(_)____ |
    }}}}}}'      |    //___/   --=:   \__ \/ / / / __ \/ __/ __ `/ ___/ __/ / ___/ |
jgs `{{{{`       |     '--'       |  ___/ / /_/ / / / / /_/ /_/ (__  ) /_/ / /__   |
     }}}`                         | /____/\__, /_/ /_/\__/\__,_/____/\__/_/\___/   |
                                  |      /____/                                    |
                                  |                                               /
                                   \_____________________________________________/
    • -
  1. Introduction
  2. Installation
    2.1. Requirements

2.2. Installing syntastic with Pathogen

  1. Recommended settings
  2. FAQ
    4.1. I installed syntastic but it isn't reporting any errors...

4.2. Syntastic supports several checkers for my filetype, how do I tell it which one(s) to use?
4.3. How can I run checkers for "foreign" filetypes against the current file?
4.4. I have enabled multiple checkers for the current filetype. How can I display all errors from all checkers together?
4.5. How can I pass additional arguments to a checker?
4.6. I run a checker and the location list is not updated...
4.6. I run:lopen or :lwindow and the error window is empty...
4.7. How can I jump between the different errors without using the location list at the bottom of the window?
4.8. The error window is closed automatically when I :quit the current buffer but not when I :bdelete it?
4.9. My favourite checker needs to load a configuration file from the project's root rather than the current directory...
4.10. What is the difference between syntax checkers and style checkers?
4.11. How can I check scripts written for different versions of Python?
4.12. How can I check scripts written for different versions of Ruby?
4.13. The perl checker has stopped working...
4.14. What happened to the rustc checker?
4.15. What happened to the tsc checker?
4.16. What happened to the xcrun checker?
4.17. What happened to the valac checker?

  1. Resources
    • -

1. Introduction

Syntastic is a syntax checking plugin for Vim created by
Martin Grenfell. It runs files through external syntax checkers
and displays any resulting errors to the user. This can be done on demand, or
automatically as files are saved. If syntax errors are detected, the user is
notified and is happy because they didn't have to compile their code or execute
their script to find them.

At the time of this writing, syntastic has checking plugins for ACPI
Source Language, ActionScript, Ada, Ansible configurations, API Blueprint,
AppleScript, AsciiDoc, Assembly languages, BEMHTML, Bro, Bourne shell, C, C++,
C#, Cabal, Chef, CMake, CoffeeScript, Coco, Coq, CSS, Cucumber, CUDA, D, Dart,
DocBook, Dockerfile, Dust, Elixir, Erlang, eRuby, Fortran, Gentoo metadata,
GLSL, Go, Haml, Haskell, Haxe, Handlebars, HSS, HTML, Java, JavaScript, JSON,
JSX, Julia, LESS, Lex, Limbo, LISP, LLVM intermediate language, Lua, Markdown,
MATLAB, Mercury, NASM, Nix, Objective-C, Objective-C++, OCaml, Perl, Perl
6, Perl POD, PHP, gettext Portable Object, OS X and iOS property lists, Pug
(formerly Jade), Puppet, Python, QML, R, Racket, RDF TriG, RDF Turtle, Relax
NG, reStructuredText, RPM spec, Ruby, SASS/SCSS, Scala, Slim, SML, Solidity,
Sphinx, SQL, Stylus, Tcl, TeX, Texinfo, Twig, TypeScript, Verilog, VHDL,
Vim help, VimL, Vue.js, xHtml, XML, XSLT, XQuery, YACC, YAML, YANG data models,
YARA rules, z80, Zope page templates, and Zsh. See the manual for
details about the corresponding supported checkers (:help syntastic-checkers
in Vim).

A number of third-party Vim plugins also provide checkers for syntastic, for
example: merlin, omnisharp-vim, rust.vim,
syntastic-extras, syntastic-more, tsuquyomi,
vim-crystal, vim-eastwood, and vim-swift.

Below is a screenshot showing the methods that Syntastic uses to display syntax

  1. Note that, in practise, you will only have a subset of these methods
    enabled.

Screenshot 1

  1. Errors are loaded into the location list for the corresponding window.
  2. When the cursor is on a line containing an error, the error message is echoed in the command window.
  3. Signs are placed beside lines with errors - note that warnings are displayed in a different color.
  4. There is a configurable statusline flag you can include in your statusline config.
  5. Hover the mouse over a line containing an error and the error message is displayed as a balloon.
  6. (not shown) Highlighting errors with syntax highlighting. Erroneous parts of lines can be highlighted.

2. Installation

2.1. Requirements

Syntastic itself has rather relaxed requirements: it doesn't have any external
dependencies, and it needs a version of Vim compiled with a few common
features: autocmd, eval, file_in_path, modify_fname, quickfix,
reltime, statusline, and user_commands. Not all possible combinations of
features that include the ones above make equal sense on all operating systems,
but Vim version 7 or later with the "normal", "big", or "huge" feature sets
should be fine.

Syntastic should work with any modern plugin managers for Vim, such as
NeoBundle, Pathogen, Vim-Addon-Manager,
Vim-Plug, or Vundle. Instructions for installing syntastic
with Pathogen are included below for completeness.

Starting with Vim version 7.4.1486 you can also load syntastic using the
standard mechanism of packages, without the help of third-party plugin managers
(see :help packages in Vim for details). Beware however that, while support
for packages has been added in Vim 7.4.1384, the functionality needed by
syntastic is present only in versions 7.4.1486 and later.

Last but not least: syntastic doesn't know how to do any syntax checks by

  1. In order to get meaningful results you need to install external
  2. corresponding to the types of files you use. Please consult the

manual (:help syntastic-checkers in Vim) for a list of supported
checkers.

2.2. Installing syntastic with Pathogen

If you already have Pathogen working then skip Step 1 and go to
Step 2.

2.2.1. Step 1: Install pathogen.vim

First I'll show you how to install Tim Pope's Pathogen so that it's easy to
install syntastic. Do this in your terminal so that you get the pathogen.vim
file and the directories it needs:

mkdir -p ~/.vim/autoload ~/.vim/bundle && \
curl -LSso ~/.vim/autoload/pathogen.vim https://tpo.pe/pathogen.vim

Next you need to add this to your ~/.vimrc:

execute pathogen#infect()

2.2.2. Step 2: Install syntastic as a Pathogen bundle

You now have pathogen installed and can put syntastic into ~/.vim/bundle like
this:

cd ~/.vim/bundle && \
git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/vim-syntastic/syntastic.git

Quit vim and start it back up to reload it, then type:

:Helptags

If you get an error when you do this, then you probably didn't install
Pathogen right. Go back to Step 1 and make sure you did the
following:

  1. Created both the ~/.vim/autoload and ~/.vim/bundle directories.
  2. Added the execute pathogen#infect() line to your ~/.vimrc file
  3. Did the git clone of syntastic inside ~/.vim/bundle
  4. Have permissions to access all of these directories.

3. Recommended settings

Syntastic has numerous options that can be configured, and the defaults
are not particularly well suitable for new users. It is recommended
that you start by adding the following lines to your vimrc file, and
return to them after reading the manual (see :help syntastic in Vim):

set statusline+=%#warningmsg#
set statusline+=%{SyntasticStatuslineFlag()}
set statusline+=%*

let g:syntastic_always_populate_loc_list = 1
let g:syntastic_auto_loc_list = 1
let g:syntastic_check_on_open = 1
let g:syntastic_check_on_wq = 0

4. FAQ

4.1. Q. I installed syntastic but it isn't reporting any errors...

A. The most likely reason is that none of the syntax checkers that it requires
are installed. For example: by default, python requires either flake8 or
pylint to be installed and in your $PATH. Read the manual
(:help syntastic-checkers in Vim) to find out what executables are

  1. Note that aliases do not work; the actual executables must be
  2. in your $PATH. Symbolic links are okay though. You can see

syntastic's idea of available checkers by running :SyntasticInfo.

A second probable reason is that none of the available checkers are

  1. Syntastic comes preconfigured with a default list of enabled checkers
  2. filetype, but this list is kept short in order to prevent slowing down Vim

or trying to run conflicting checks. The command :SyntasticInfo will show you
which checkers are enabled. You can tell syntastic which checkers (among the
available ones) you want to run by setting g:syntastic_<filetype>_checkers in
your vimrc (see below).

A third possible reason is that the $PATH seen by syntastic might not be same
as the $PATH in your login shell. Syntastic runs checkers using the shell
pointed to by Vim's shell (or by g:syntastic_shell, if set), and that's the
shell you need to configure to set the proper $PATH and environment variables
for your checkers. You can see syntastic's idea of $PATH by running

:echo syntastic#util#system('echo "$PATH"')

on UNIX and Mac OS-X systems, or

:echo syntastic#util#system('echo %PATH%')

on Windows.

Finally, another reason it could fail is that either the command line options
or the error output for a syntax checker may have changed. In this case, make
sure you have the latest version of the syntax checker installed. If it still
fails then post an issue - or better yet, create a pull request.

__4.2. Q. Syntastic supports several checkers for my filetype, how do I tell it
which one(s) to use?__

A. Add a line like this to your vimrc:

let g:syntastic_<filetype>_checkers = ['<checker-name>']

To see the list of supported checkers for your filetype read the
manual (:help syntastic-checkers in Vim).

For example, Python has the following checkers, among others: flake8,
pyflakes, pylint and a native python checker. To tell syntastic to use
pylint, you would use this setting:

let g:syntastic_python_checkers = ['pylint']

Checkers can be chained together like this:

let g:syntastic_php_checkers = ['php', 'phpcs', 'phpmd']

This is telling syntastic to run the php checker first, and if no errors are
found, run phpcs, and then phpmd.

You can also run checkers explicitly by calling :SyntasticCheck <checker>.
For example to run phpcs and phpmd:

:SyntasticCheck phpcs phpmd

This works for any checkers available for the current filetype, even if they
aren't listed in g:syntastic_<filetype>_checkers.

__4.3. Q. How can I run checkers for "foreign" filetypes against the current
file?__

A. You need to qualify the name of the "foreign" checker with the name
of its filetype. For example to check tex files with the checker
language_check (which normally acts only on files of type text), you can
add text/language_check to the list fo checkers for tex:

let g:syntastic_tex_checkers = ['lacheck', 'text/language_check']

This also works with :SyntasticCheck, e.g. the following command runs
text/language_check against the current file regardless of the current
filetype:

:SyntasticCheck text/language_check

Of course, the checkers specified this way need to be known to syntastic, and
they need to be shown as available when you run :SyntasticInfo. You can't
just make up a combination of a filetype and a program name and expect it to
work as a checker.

__4.4. Q. I have enabled multiple checkers for the current filetype. How can I
display all errors from all checkers together?__

A. Set g:syntastic_aggregate_errors to 1 in your vimrc:

let g:syntastic_aggregate_errors = 1

See :help syntastic-aggregating-errors for more details.

4.5. Q. How can I pass additional arguments to a checker?

A. In most cases a command line is constructed using an internal function
named makeprgBuild(), which provides a number of options that allow you to
customise every part of the command that gets run. You can set these options
using global variables.

The general form of the global args variable is
syntastic_<filetype>_<checker>_args. Thus if you wanted to pass
--my --args --here to the Ruby mri checker you would add this line to your
vimrc:

let g:syntastic_ruby_mri_args = "--my --args --here"

See :help syntastic-checker-options for more information.

A number of checkers don't use the makeprgBuild() function mentioned above,
or have additional options that can be configured. For these checkers the exact
list of options should be included in the manual
(:help syntastic-checkers in Vim).

4.6. Q. I run a checker and the location list is not updated...
4.6. Q. I run:lopen or :lwindow and the error window is empty...

A. By default the location list is changed only when you run the :Errors
command, in order to minimise conflicts with other plugins. If you want the
location list to always be updated when you run the checkers, add this line to
your vimrc:

let g:syntastic_always_populate_loc_list = 1

__4.7. Q. How can I jump between the different errors without using the location
list at the bottom of the window?__

A. Vim provides several built-in commands for this. See :help :lnext and
:help :lprevious.

If you use these commands a lot then you may want to add shortcut mappings to
your vimrc, or install something like unimpaired, which provides such
mappings (among other things).

__4.8. Q. The error window is closed automatically when I :quit the current buffer
but not when I :bdelete it?__

A. There is no safe way to handle that situation automatically, but you can
work around it:

nnoremap <silent> <C-d> :lclose<CR>:bdelete<CR>
cabbrev <silent> bd <C-r>=(getcmdtype()==#':' && getcmdpos()==1 ? 'lclose\|bdelete' : 'bd')<CR>

__4.9. My favourite checker needs to load a configuration file from the
project's root rather than the current directory...__

A. You can set up an autocmd to search for the configuration file in the
current directory and upwards, and add it to the checker's options when found.
For example for jscs:

function! FindConfig(prefix, what, where)
    let cfg = findfile(a:what, escape(a:where, ' ') . ';')
    return cfg !=# '' ? ' ' . a:prefix . ' ' . shellescape(cfg) : ''
endfunction

autocmd FileType javascript let b:syntastic_javascript_jscs_args =
    \ get(g:, 'syntastic_javascript_jscs_args', '') .
    \ FindConfig('-c', '.jscsrc', expand('<afile>:p:h', 1))

4.10. Q. What is the difference between syntax checkers and style checkers?

A. The errors and warnings they produce are highlighted differently and can
be filtered by different rules, but otherwise the distinction is pretty much

  1. There is an ongoing effort to keep things consistent, so you can
    generally expect messages produced by syntax checkers to be mostly related

to syntax, and messages produced by style checkers to be mostly about style.
But there can be no formal guarantee that, say, a style checker that runs into
a syntax error wouldn't die with a fatal message, nor that a syntax checker
wouldn't give you warnings against using some constructs as being bad practice.
There is also no guarantee that messages marked as style are less severe than
the ones marked as syntax (whatever that might mean). And there are even a
few Frankenstein checkers (for example flake8 and pylama) that, by their
nature, produce both kinds of messages. Syntastic is not smart enough to be
able to sort out these things by itself.

Generally it's more useful to look at this from the perspective of filtering
unwanted messages, rather than as an indicator of severity levels. The
distinction between syntax and style is orthogonal to the distinction between
errors and warnings, and thus you can turn off messages based on level, on
type, or both.

e.g. To disable all style messages:

let g:syntastic_quiet_messages = { "type": "style" }

See :help syntastic_quiet_messages for more information.

4.11. Q. How can I check scripts written for different versions of Python?

A. Install a Python version manager such as virtualenv
or pyenv, activate the environment for the relevant version
of Python, and install in it the checkers you want to use. Set
g:syntastic_python_checkers accordingly in your vimrc, and run Vim
from the virtual environment.

If you're starting Vim from a desktop manager rather than from a terminal you
might need to write wrapper scripts around your checkers, to activate the
virtual environment before running the actual checks. Then you'll need to
point the relevant g:syntastic_python_<checker>_exec variables to the wrapper
scripts.

4.12. Q. How can I check scripts written for different versions of Ruby?

A. Install a Ruby version manager such as rvm or rbenv,
activate the relevant version of Ruby, and install in it the checkers you want
to use. Set g:syntastic_ruby_checkers accordingly in your vimrc, and run
Vim under the relevant Ruby version.

If you're starting Vim from a desktop manager rather than from a terminal
and depending on the version manager you use you might need to write wrapper
scripts around your checkers, to activate the relevant version of Ruby
before running the actual checks. Then you'll need to point the relevant
g:syntastic_ruby_<checker>_exec variables to the wrapper scripts.

4.13. Q. The perl checker has stopped working...

A. The perl checker runs perl -c against your file, which in turn
executes any BEGIN, UNITCHECK, and CHECK blocks, and any use
statements in your file (cf. perlrun). This is probably fine if you
wrote the file yourself, but it's a security problem if you're checking
third-party files. Since there is currently no way to disable this behaviour
while still producing useful results, the checker is now disabled by default.
To (re-)enable it, make sure the g:syntastic_perl_checkers list includes
perl, and set g:syntastic_enable_perl_checker to 1 in your vimrc:

let g:syntastic_enable_perl_checker = 1

4.14. Q. What happened to the rustc checker?

A. It is now part of the rust.vim plugin. If you install this plugin the
checker should be picked up automatically by syntastic.

4.15. Q. What happened to the tsc checker?

A. It didn't meet people's expectations and it has been removed. The plugin
tsuquyomi comes packaged with a checker for TypeScript. If you
install this plugin the checker should be picked up automatically by syntastic.

4.16. Q. What happened to the xcrun checker?

A. The xcrun checker used to have a security problem and it has been removed.
A better checker for Swift is part of the vim-swift plugin. If you
install this plugin the checker should be picked up automatically by syntastic.

4.17. Q. What happened to the valac checker?

A. It is now part of the vala.vim plugin. If you install this plugin the
checker should be picked up automatically by syntastic.

5. Resources

The preferred place for posting suggestions, reporting bugs, and general
discussions related to syntastic is the issue tracker at GitHub.
A guide for writing syntax checkers can be found in the wiki.
There are also a dedicated google group, and a
syntastic tag at StackOverflow.

Syntastic aims to provide a common interface to syntax checkers for as many
languages as possible. For particular languages, there are, of course, other
plugins that provide more functionality than syntastic. You might want to take
a look at ghcmod-vim, jedi-vim, python-mode, vim-go, or
YouCompleteMe.

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